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The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and the spinal cord. Infections: some micro-organisms and viruses can invade the CNS; these include fungi, such as cryptococcal meningitis; protozoa, including malaria; bacteria, as is the case with leprosy, or viruses. The components of the central nervous system are further split into a myriad of parts. The circuits within the spine can also generate more complex movements such as walking. It gathers information from all over the body and coordinates activity. The brain is protected by the skull (the cranial cavity) and the spinal cord travels from the back of the brain, down the center of the spine, stopping in the lumbar region of the lower back. Through the decades, the profession has become widely accepted in the health care system as a standardized, licensed, and fully regulated health care occupation, and one that significantly impacts the nation’s economy by providing safe, low-cost, and effective evidence-based health care services. It is the largest white matter structure in the brain and allows the two hemispheres to communicate. Click here to learn more about your state. The spinal cord, running almost the full length of the back, carries information between the brain and body, but also carries out other tasks. Last medically reviewed on December 22, 2017, Stroke blocks the blood supply to the brain and can be life threatening. The brain is only required to stop and start the process, or make changes if, for instance, an object appears in your path. Specialty certifications are available through various specialty nursing organizations. It orders your lungs to breathe and your heart to beat. One example is Parkinson’s disease which involves the gradual degeneration of dopamine-producing cells in the basal ganglia. For instance, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is characterized by an immune response against the brain and spinal cord, attacking myelin (the nerves’ insulation) and, therefore, destroying white matter. The brain is the central control module of the body and coordinates activity. The clinical nurse specialist has been a part of the health care industrial complex in the United States for more than 60 years. To carry out these functions, some sections of the brain have dedicated roles. © 2020 National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists. The CNS can work in a variety of specialities. However, many higher functions — reasoning, problem-solving, creativity — involve different areas working together in networks. They also regulate the local environment by removing excess ions and recycling neurotransmitters. There are a number of differences between the CNS and PNS; one difference is the size of the cells. It is also involved in laying down long-term memories. Frontal lobe (pink): positioned at the front of the brain, the frontal lobe contains the majority of dopamine-sensitive neurons and is involved in attention, reward, short-term memory, motivation, and planning. The brain is command central. Clinical Nurse Specialist… The cranial nerves are 12 pairs of nerves that arise directly from the brain and pass through holes in the skull rather than traveling along the spinal cord. What do we really know…, Peripheral neuropathy is common among people with diabetes, causing loss of sensitivity in the hands and feet, and in organs such as the kidneys…, © 2004-2020 Healthline Media UK Ltd, Brighton, UK, a Red Ventures Company. Our brain uses around 20 percent of our body’s total energy. Optic nerves (cranial nerve II): carry visual information from the retina to the primary visual nuclei of the brain. Structural defects: the most common examples are birth defects; including anencephaly, where parts of the skull, brain, and scalp are missing at birth. The term peripheral nervous system (PNS) refers to any part of the nervous system that lies outside of the brain and spinal cord. The CNS is responsible and accountable for diagnosis and treatment of health/illness states, disease management, health promotion, and prevention of illness and risk behaviors among individuals, families, groups, and communities.” It’s still wordy, but I think it’s the clearest description I’ve found. All rights reserved. Radial glia: act as scaffolding for new nerve cells during the creation of the embryo’s nervous system. Occipital lobe (purple): visual processing region of the brain, housing the visual cortex. Glial cells are found in both the CNS and PNS but each system has different types. The brain and spinal cord are both housed within a protective triple-layered membrane called the meninges. Both types of tissue contain glial cells, which protect and support neurons. Hypothalamus: sitting just above the brain stem and roughly the size of an almond, the hypothalamus secretes a number of neurohormones and influences body temperature control, thirst, and hunger. Both types can cause damage and yield an array of symptoms depending on where they develop. From the brainstem, where the spinal cord meets the brain, 31 spinal nerves enter the cord. It also plays a part in language processing. They also provide expertise and support to nurses caring for patients at the bedside, help drive practice changes throughout the organization, and ensure the use of best practices and evidence-based care to achieve the best possible patient outcomes. Research into clinical nurse specialist practice demonstrates outcomes such as: Read more about how clinical nurse specialists can positively impact health outcomes in the policy paper: Impact of the Clinical Nurse Specialist Role on the Costs and Quality of Health Care. Corpus callosum: a broad band of nerve fibers that join the left and right hemispheres. If the cerebellum is damaged, the primary symptom is disrupted motor control, known as ataxia. Autoimmune disorders: in some cases, an individual’s immune system can mount an attack on healthy cells. reduced medical complications in hospitalized patients. Below are the major causes of disorders that affect the CNS: Trauma: depending on the site of the injury, symptoms can vary widely from paralysis to mood disorders. When damaged, an individual finds it difficult to speak but can still understand speech. A clinical nurse specialist (CNS) is an advanced practice nurse who can provide expert advice related to specific conditions or treatment pathways. We will look at the types of cells involved, different regions within the brain, spinal circuitry, and how the CNS can be affected by disease and injury. Some aspects of language perception are also housed here. Clinical nurse specialists are advanced practice registered nurses who have graduate preparation (Master’s or Doctorate) in nursing. Clinical nurse specialists have the skills and expertise to identify where the gaps are in health care delivery. Much of the PNS has the ability to regenerate; if a nerve in your finger is severed, it can regrow. Please contact your specialty nursing association for more details. According to the International Council of Nurses (ICN), an Advanced Practice Nurse is a registered nurse who has acquired the expert knowledge base, complex decision-making skills and clinical competencies for expanded practice, the characteristics of which are shaped by the context and/or country in which s/he is credentialed to practice. Clinical nurse specialists provide diagnosis, treatment, and ongoing management of patients. Tumors: both cancerous and noncancerous tumors can impact parts of the central nervous system. They also provide expertise and support to nurses caring for patients at the bedside, help drive practice changes throughout the organization, and ensure the use of best practices and evidence-based care to achieve the best possible patient outcomes. SpO2 Alarm Management Toolkit by AAMI Foundation, 2020 CNS Graduate Education Virtual Forum. They are involved in decision-making, memory, and emotional responses; particularly negative emotions. These nerves collect and send information between the brain and parts of the body – mostly the neck and head. A clinical nurse specialists’ specialty may be defined by: Clinical nurse specialists provide diagnosis, treatment, and ongoing management of patients. There is no…, Neuroscience is the study of how the nervous system develops, its structure, and what it does. This document is known as the Consensus Model for APRN Regulation. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. This article gives a brief overview of the central nervous system (CNS). Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional, Eating dried fruit linked to better overall diet and health, Loneliness and hunger share a home in the brain, Tuberculosis vaccine may help protect against COVID-19, Jaw-clenching and teeth-grinding during the pandemic, The impact of historical trauma on American Indian health equity, Multiple sclerosis: What you need to know, Seven (or more) things you didn't know about your brain. The CNS, however, does not have this ability. Ependymal cells: lining the spinal cord and the brain’s ventricles (fluid-filled spaces), these create and secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and keep it circulating using their whip-like cilia. Health care doesn’t operate with one set of guidelines, so a clinical nurse specialist … reduced hospital costs and length of stay; reduced frequency of emergency room visits; increased patient satisfaction with nursing care; and. Below is a 3D map of the CMS. All rights reserved. The Consensus Model for APRN Regulation, often referred to as the APRN Consensus Model, is available in the Advocacy & Policy section of our site. It is referred to as “central” because it combines information from the entire body and coordinates activity across the whole organism. The brain consists of an estimated 100 billion neurons, with each connected to thousands more. American Association of Critical Care Nurses Certification Corporation. type of problem (such as: pain, wounds, stress). Finds it difficult to speak but can still understand speech including- educator expert! 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